CLEAN & BRIGHT
Influencing events & outcomes
Variants and hybrids
In 1862, a "compound rotary washing machine, with rollers for wringing or mangling" was shown at the 1862 London Exhibition.
There are many variations of two general variable designs on the market today. Top-loading machines in Asia use impellers instead of agitators. Impellers are similar to agitators except that they do not have the centre post extending up in the middle of the wash tub basket.
The top-loading, vertical axis cloth washer, is the dominant design in the United States and Canada.
This design places the clothes in a vertically mounted perforated basket that is contained within a water-retaining tub, with a finned water-pumping agitator in the centre of the bottom of the basket.
Clothes are loaded through the top of the machine, which is usually but not always covered with a hinged door.
The front-loading or horizontal-axis clothes washer is the dominant design in Europe.
In other regions of the world, most high-end washing machines are of this type.
Also, most commercial and industrial clothes washers around the world are of the horizontal-axis design.
A German multinational engineering and technology company, founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart.
Bosch's core operating areas are mobility (hardware and software), consumer goods (including household appliances and power tools), industrial technology, energy and building technology.
A vacuum cleaner company founded in Ohio, Hoover has a major base in the UK. During the 20th century, Hoover dominated the electric vacuum cleaner industry, to the point where the Hoover brand name became synonymous with vacuum cleaners and vacuuming in the UK and Ireland (“to hoover” etc.).
Part of the Whirlpool Corporation, Hoover was sold into Hong Kong multinational Techtronic Industries in 2006, while Hoover Europe/UK split from Hoover US in 1993.
Electrolux AB is a Swedish multinational home appliance manufacturer, usually ranked as the world's second-largest appliance maker by units sold after Whirlpool.
Electrolux products are primarily major appliances and vacuum cleaners intended on the whole for consumer use.
While powdered and liquid detergents hold a roughly equal share of the worldwide laundry detergent market in terms of value, powdered detergents are sold twice as much compared to liquids in terms of volume.
The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to ancient Babylon.
Developments from the 1930s onwards brought commercial powders to the marketplace and caused a fast growth in domestic use in the late 1940s.
The first liquid laundry detergent introduced to the US market was Wisk, an American brand manufactured by Unilever (1956 to 2008) and Sun Products (2008 to 2017).
Wisk was introduced in the United States by the Lever Brothers Company in 1956 as the first liquid laundry detergent.
In 2010, Wisk was re-launched with a new formulation and with new packaging, featuring its Stain Spectrum Technology and its ability to fight tough stains. A fresh advertising campaign was also launched, that featured the "science of stain-fighting".
The brand came in a variety of formulations, including "Deep Clean", "High Efficiency", "Fresh Boost" and "Oxi Complete".
Laundry detergent pods (packs or liquitabs) are water-soluble pouches containing highly concentrated laundry detergent, softener and other laundry products.
They first became popular in 2012 when they were introduced by Procter & Gamble.
Laundry pods are estimated to make up about 15% of US laundry detergent market sales, according to market researcher Nielsen NV. Detergent pods cost significantly more than liquid detergent for equivalent laundry loads.